Lost Spring Summary Class 12 English Flamingo

Lost Spring Summary Class 12 English Flamingo

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The Last Lesson Summary Class 12 English Flamingo

The Last Lesson

The Last Lesson — by ALPHONSE DAUDET Chapter Summary Introduction The story represents the days of Franco-Prussian was. After gaining vectory over Alsace and Lorraine in France, Berlin had ordered that only German will be taught in the schools of France. Franz is Reluctant to go to School Franz had started for school very late … Read more

CBSE Sample Paper 2023-24 Class 12 | cbseacademic nic in

Download CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers 2023-24 in PDF

CBSE Class 12 Sample Paper 2023-24: The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has released the sample question papers and marking scheme for the upcoming academic year 2023-2024 for all subjects from all streams. The CBSE board publishes 12th-class sample papers and solutions/marking schemes each year so that students can properly prepare for their exams, … Read more

CBSE 12 Answer Key 2023 Download Pdf

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The Interview Summary Class 12 English English Flamingo

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Deep Water Summary Class 12 English | English Flamingo

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CBSE Class 12 Fine Arts Notes And Syllabus Pdf 2023-24

CBSE Class 12 Fine Arts Notes

Syllabus 2022-23

  • Unit 1 – The Rajasthani and Pahari Schools of Miniature Painting.
  • Unit 2 – The Mughal and Deccan Schools of Miniature Painting.
  • Unit 3 – The Bengal School of Painting and the Modern Trends in Indian Art.

Unit – 1 

The Rajasthani and Pahari Schools of Miniature Painting 

(A.) The Rajasthani School of Miniature Painting

Origin and Development:

Rajasthani School was a continuation of old Indian tradition. This art was
developed under the Rajput kings. In the beginning, this school had Mughal
influence, but later it was established as a purely Indian art having no
Mughal influence. Rajasthani School did not originate as miniature, but it
was primarily a mural art.

During the attack of Mughals, the whole Rajasthan was affected but Mewar
remained safe till the end. So, Rajasthani School flourished first in
Mewar. Later, it flourished in Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bundi, Kishangarh, Bikaner
and other places of Rajasthan. Kishan Singh ruled at Kishangarh. After
Kishan Singh, Raja Sawant Singh’s son Raja Raj Singh ruled Kishangarh and
art reached its climax. Raja Sawant Singh was also a very famous king of
Kishangarh. Rajasthan was a place of ‘Raja’ (Kings) or place of ‘States’.
That’s why it was known as Rajasthan. 

Rajasthani Art had purely Hindu feelings and had Indian sensibility. 

The Main Characteristics or features of Rajasthani School of Miniature
Painting :

  • Variety in Themes :There is a great variety in themes of Rajasthani Paintings. Themes are
    based on seasons, music, hunting scenes, religious themes like Ramayana,
    Mahabharata etc., love scenes, ragmala series etc. In love scenes,
    Krishna and Radha have been depicted.

  • Colour Scheme : The main colours used are the primary
    colours (red, yellow & blue), green, brown and white. Other colours
    in use are golden and silver.

  • Costumes : Females are wearing Lehanga and Choli with
    Transparent Dupatta. Males are wearing turbans and Jhoba (a group of
    threads), pyjama and Patka. 
  • Facial features : Faces are full of emotions and feelings
    according to the mood. The faces are in profile, elongated and oval, the
    forhead is inclining downwards, long and pointed nose, swelling out lips
    and pointed chin.
  • Depiction of women : The women of Kishangarh School are very
  • Lines : The lines are very fine, powerful and rhythmic.
  • Depiction of Nature : Nature has also been depicted very
    beautifully. Different types of trees, floral trees, mountains, water
    springs and lakes have been depicted in a very attractive manner.

The Rajasthani Paintings:

Maru-Ragini Sahibdin Mewar
Raja Anirudh Singh Hara Utkal Ram Bundi
Chaugan Players Dana Jodhpur
Krishna on Swing Nuruddin Bikaner
Radha (Bani-Thani) Nihal Chand Kishangarh
Bharat meets Rama at Chitrakut Guman Jaipur

Maru-Ragini (Sahibdin):

The love story of Dhola – Maru is very popular in Rajasthan and is narrated
both in Murals and miniature paintings. The composition of the painting is
divided into two parts. Dhola and Maru are shown seated under a yellow
canopy with a red curtain in the upper part of the composition. Dhola is
dressed in typical aristocratic attire complete with weapons like sword and
shield, facing his lover Maru in Rajasthani costume. The lower part of the
composition shows Maru caressing her pet camel. Both the figures are
prominent against a green background dotted with flower motifs. Stylished
motifs of trees are bringing a unity in the composition.

Raja Anirudha Singh Hara (Utkal Ram):-

This miniature painting from Bundi, Raja Anirudha Singh Hara represents the
encroachment of realism in the decorative style of Rajput miniature
painting. The painting shows the Raja on the back of a galloping horse. He
is dressed in typically Mughal costume along with the headdress (turban).
There is refined craftsmanship in the drawing of the galloping horse hoop
uplifted. The king dress is decorated with orange and brown colours. He
holds a flower in his left hand. The scabbard and sword hilt are elaborately
ornamented. The small head of the horse has added hugeness to the body of
the horse. There is a peculiarity of the Bundi paintings which contains
minor in one corner.

Chaugan Players (Dana):-

The painting Chaugan Players is of a group of Polo-Players all
mounted on horse-backs with polo sticks in their hands. The two princesses
are riding side saddles and are bare-headed. They are charging at each other
with long polo sticks trying to control the ball. Their lady companions are
also on horse-back, riding side saddle, running away from the centre but
still trying to control the polo ball with long sticks. 
Their upper bodies are twisted backward trying to face the ball. Heads of
the maids are covered with Odhnis. They are all dressed in Rajput costumes.
A little cluster of foliage and flower is presented in a stylished manner.
Their skirt spread out in bell like fashion with the movement of the maids
and their horses has lent speed to the movement and highlighted the game
with the ball in the middle surrounded by polo sticks, which has been
produced by the artist very clearly. They all have their tresses tied in

Radha [Bani-Thani] (Nihalchand):-

This painting of Nihalchand of Kishangarh of Rajasthani School has a special
place in the treasure of Indian miniature paintings. The style is
characterized by emphatic lengthening of the eyes and nose. Faces are mostly
in profile with a very stylized eye-brow and smile on the lips. The painter
was inspired by the poem of Raja Sawant Singh., 
who describes the beauty of a lady called “Bani Thani” in his poem. The
beauty of this  woman is symbolically used to describe the beauty of
Sri Radha. Her smile is supposedly enigmatic; her eyes reflect the ideal
feminine beauty of  classic Sanskrit Literature. She is painted as an
ideal of Indian womanhood and can easily  be compared to Monalisa
supposed to eptomise the ideal of womanhood.

Bharat meets Rama at Chitrakuta (Guman):-

This one is a very popular episode of Ramayana, largely known as “Bharat
milap”. The painting depicts the emotional moment when Bharata, the whole
incident is taking place at the jungle of Chirakuta where Rama stayed for
few days. Painter Guman has done wonderful presentation of forty nine
figures on a small canvas relating an entire story in episodic from bringing
the same figures in groups for Rama to express his desire of carrying out
his father’s wishes. Rama’s cottage is dimly seen in the right hand corner
and there is a bunch of banana grove beyond that. There is profusion of
green in the whole painting for the background. In the foreground, there is
a pound-like stretch of water possibly a part of the river Sarayu blooming
lotuses and colours use are green, blue, yellow and white very dexterously.
It is a very well executed painting of Jaipur School. 

Krishna on Swing (Nuruddin):-

The painting “Krishna on Swing” is yet another marvelous achievement of this period. The painting has two
panels depicting two different part of scene. On the first part of the panel
Krishna is shown sitting on a swing on the left side of the panel. He is
wearing a tiara on his head, his upper part is semi-clothed and there is
white flower garland on his neck.
There is a Dupatta hanging from his shoulders, and he is wearing an orange
coloured ‘dhoti’. The blue complexion of his body has been highlighted. The
swing has an ornamental border is hexagonal shape. Radha sitting in front of
him in the balcony is wearing traditional but decorated ‘Ghangra’ and
‘choli’. They are looking at each other. Her head is covered with a
transparent Odhnis and she is sitting on arced carpet. There is pillow
supporting the back of both Radha and Krishna. In the lower panel, both
Radha and Krishna are sitting at different places under a tree in a
foreground. An attendant of Radha is also shown in the painting. She has
perhaps brought a message for Krishna. Here again Krishna is wearing tiara,
garland and  Dupatta, but his dhoti is of yellow colour. Both Radha and
Krishna are sitting on red carpets supported by pillows. Radha is wearing
yellow colored “Ghangra” and “Choli”.
The attendant standing striped Ghangra Choli of light purple colors. Both
the Tree and a mound are in the background. The leaves of the trees are
shown clearly in cluster of repeating pattern. Each leaf of the tree reveals
the artist’s delight in rendering details. The mound is drawn in typical
Rajasthan style.

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